Black & White Edition in U.S.A

Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939


Colored Edition in Europe

How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939

Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details HOME at right column. Ca. 116 pages and 100 color figures. Details HOME at right column.
 

Record North Atlantic sea ice in summer 1917! 
Contributing to the biggest climatic shift last century? 
What caused this extraordinary event?

In addition to Chapter 8
 (posted May 2014)
 

Never has such a high sea ice extent been observed in the North Atlantic as in summer 1917 (Fig.3). This exceptional case has never been investigated. Worst! Science seems not to have taken notice of it although thorough understanding of the event could possibly answer two important questions concerning climate change:  

FIRST: Contribute the late icing and subsequent melting process to the sudden extraordinary warming at Svalbard and polar region (Fig.2 & 3) since winter 1918/19?    
SECOND:
Contribute naval war around Great Britain since 1914 to the exceptional icing?    


Fig. 1; March 1917

Record sea ice cover in May 1917


Fig. 3; May 1917  
MORE sea ice figures for May 1901 to 1920 - HERE


Fig. 2; April 1917


Fig. 4; July 1917

 Although air temperatures at Svalbard fell to all time record low in winter 1917, sea ice conditions in March were usual (Fig. 1). In general annual sea ice extent is highest in April, but succeeded average already in April, Fig. 2; rising to a level by end of May, which presumably has not happen for more than 200 years or longer, Fig.3. Even in late July the sea ice remained at a unusual high level, Fig.4. This late and extensive icing process may have had a pronounced impact and ocean water structure, from sea level to may hundred meter depth, which could have influenced the most significant climatic change in the 20th Century, namely the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere warming that started 18 months later in winter 1918/19 (Fig. 5, 6 & 7)..

Fig. 5; Svalbard , TC, seasons & annual

Fig. 6; Annual TC north of 70; 1900-2013 + Fig.15

The sudden temperature increase at Svalbard commented the Norwegian scientist B.J. Birkeland in 1930: In conclusion I would like to stress that the mean deviation (at Svalbard , Fig. 5 & 7) results in very high figures, probably the greatest yet known on earth[1]. Indeed, in any way exceptional. The significance for the entire Polar region is shown in Fig. 6 (15 & 16) indicating the annual. According I. Schell (1956) such a situation may not have been duplicated earlier for 200 years and more (Fig. 8). It seems that the year 1866 is regarded as the most severe ice year (Fig. 9), but that relates to April while the case 1917 is in May/June.

 

Fig.7, Svalbard TC annual means

Fig.8, I. Schell (1959) said:

Fig.9, Extreme sea ice years

 What contributed naval war in Europe since August 1914? In summer 1916 the naval war machinery entered a new dimension. Sea mines, sub-marines, torpedoes, depth charges, aerial bombing, were produce an masse and used. Now almost 5-10 merchant ships sunk every day. All water from SW Wales/UK and North Sea travelled northwards with an impact on the sea surface and ocean structure down to many dozen meters, Fig. 10-13.

Fig.10

Fig.11

Fig.12 Mine warfare WWI

Fig.13

 Exactly at the same time the summer season got a sea ice extent never observed and 1 years later the biggest temperature jump in the Northern North Atlantic and adjacent sector in the Arctic ever observed (Fig.14).  

  1. First QUESTION: What was the role and impact of navel war on the sea ice situation in the North Atlantic in summer 1917?
  2. Second QUESTION: What was the role and impact of summer sea ice on the ocean structure in the high North in winter 1918/19?
  3. Third QUESTION: What was the role and impact of naval war in Northern European waters on the Norwegian and West Spitsbergen Current and subsequently ocean structure between August 1914 and November 1918? 

The correlation between warming in the Arctic and naval war is evident. It seems time to investigate and prove it.   

Continue reading: http://www.seaclimate.com/i/i.html
& http://www.arctic-heats-up.com/chapter_8.html
 

Fig. 14; Main area of warming between 1920 and 1939

Fig. 15 & Fig. 16

 MORE sea ice figures for May 1901 to 1920 - HERE

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  • Book details

  • About the book
    The ice in the polar region is melting away at an unprecedented speed during the last decade. Is the Arctic screaming? Is a tipping point reached? Is the ice melting apocalyptic? Indeed, during the last 150 years the sea ice retreat has never been as severe as in recent years. But, what is the cause? Was the current warming set in motion by the early Arctic warming which started since the late 1910s, and lasted from 1919 to 1939?
    The book will provide astonishing, but important answers. Actually, the extraordinary warming in the polar region, since 1919, was not an Arctic, but a Spitsbergen warming. The study shows that it is possible to set with precision the location and timing of the warming. Available information of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, North Europe, and Russia are analyzed in order to establish with accuracy, where and when the warming appeared, and by which magnitude. After all, the warming lasted for two decades and was in 1938 as high as currently. Thus, the investigation provides a unique picture on the knowledge about the Arctic impact on the climate.
    This work elaborates historical and resent research papers comprehensively and discusses them in such detail that seems no longer possible to assume that the earlier Arctic warming is due to "natural variability". Calling the ice melting an: "Apocalypse Now", should be met with reservation, as long as the first Arctic warming from 1919 to 1939 is not thoroughly understood. With the material and information presented, the climate change debate will be enhanced with astonishing new aspects.
  • Publisher
  • The ice in the polar region is melting away at an unprecedented speed during the last decade. Is the Arctic screaming? Is a tipping point reached? Is the ice melting apocalyptic? Indeed, during the last 150 years the sea ice retreat has never been as severe as in recent years. But, what is the cause? Was the current warming set in motion by the early Arctic warming which started since the late 1910s, and lasted from 1919 to 1939?
    The book will provide astonishing, but important answers. Actually, the extraordinary warming in the polar region, since 1919, was not an Arctic, but a Spitsbergen warming. The study shows that it is possible to set with precision the location and timing of the warming. Available information of the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, North Europe, and Russia are analyzed in order to establish with accuracy, where and when the warming appeared, and by which magnitude. After all, the warming lasted for two decades and was in 1938 as high as currently. Thus, the investigation provides a unique picture on the knowledge about the Arctic impact on the climate.
    This work elaborates historical and resent research papers comprehensively and discusses them in such detail that seems no longer possible to assume that the earlier Arctic warming is due to "natural variability". Calling the ice melting an: "Apocalypse Now", should be met with reservation, as long as the first Arctic warming from 1919 to 1939 is not thoroughly understood. With the material and information presented, the climate change debate will be enhanced with astonishing new aspects.

    Arnd Bernaerts/February 2009

  • Note about the Editions
  • The various website and book presentations are all based on the same text. However some differences may occur due to changes and modification, which will not always be done to all available versions, or not at the same time, or it is not reasonable possible. The version to be regarded as the most updated text are the PDF-files of the Europe Color Edition at the Home-Page, left column.

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