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The Book in PDF

Black & White Edition in U.S.A
Arctic Heats Up.
Spitsbergen 1919 to 1939

Colored Edition in Europe
How Spitsbergen Heats the World
The Arctic Warming 1919-1939
ISBN: 978-1-4401-4087-7 ISBN 978-3-8370-9524-1
Ca.116 pages and 100 b/w figures. More details in right column. Ca. 116 pages and 100 color figures. Details see column.
Chapter 9


To many climate scientists the Arctic warming remains "one of the most puzzling climate anomalies of the 20th century" (Bengtsson, 2004). Yet, the phenomenon discussed here is not as puzzling as claimed. This investigation could establish that only the seas in the realm of Spitsbergen could have generated the sudden increase of the observed air-temperatures, and indicate the precise time period, namely the winter of 1918/19. This timing stands in extremely close relation with the naval war activities in Europe.

Ninety years have passed since the most pronounce and sudden climatic shift has occurred. The 'when' and 'where' had been the main task of the investigation. Although the scientists of the pre-WWII generation started only 10 years after the Arctic warming commenced, their one decade long elaborations was in no way less to the point than much more recent investigation. If WWII had not ended this attention, the 1930s generation might have explained the early Arctic warming since long.

It came differently. On the warming period followed an almost four decade long cooling. In so far it could serve as excuse for showing little interest in the pre WWII warming. But the trend altered direction again. At the change of the millennium the Arctic temperatures were as high as in the late 1930s. Latest when the warming returned in the 1980s it was high time to investigate and explain the previous warming since the late 1910s. That was 30 years ago. But nothing has been done. Many hundred papers were published, but the "climatic revolution" (Ahlmann, 1946) and what made it happen had not been regarded as worth to receive the required attention.

Instead of explaining the first warming that happened under the eyes and observations of modern science, the issue is pushed aside by claiming "natural variability". That is a non explanation. It generates a wrong impression. If a hurricane destroys New Orleans, it was a hurricane that destroyed the city and not "natural variability". If a tsunami sinks dozen of ships, a tsunami sank the ships. If the West Spitsbergen Current warmed the Arctic, than it was a branch of the Gulf Current that increased the Arctic temperatures. It was therefore necessary to establish to the point, that the warming started at Spitsbergen in winter 1918/19, that this even affected the temperatures in Greenland from ca. 1920 to 1933, and in the East of Spitsbergen the warming lasted until the early 1940s. Concerning Europe there was a warming over two decades from ca. 1920 to 1940, but this warming was presumably not generated alone from the Arctic region, but has had a regional or continental component as well. Current Arctic research should understand what had caused the Big Spitsbergen warming early last century.

The investigation could furthermore demonstrate that there is a high possibility of a connection between the Arctic warming and the naval war in Europe from 1914 to 1918, due to the fact that the seawater current system had carried all the war torn sea water literally into the front garden of the Spitsbergen. Had the naval war of WWI occurred in the sea area of Spitsbergen at a similar magnitude as around Great Britain during the war, presumably no one would have ever questioned the interconnection between the Arctic Warming and the naval war.


This book would not have been possible without the invaluable help and commitment from Angela Boartes. The liaison commenced in 2006 and includes the care for the websites and Arctic warming became the first big challenge by preparing a conference paper for PACON 2007/Honolulu and a website, and Angela supported it greatly. When it was decided to present the complex matter in great detail and underline the text with explanatory images, Angela and her team showed high professionalism and willingness. It made the research, the elaborating of material, and the writing a smooth and enjoyable undertaking. Angela also undertook all the formatting and publication procedure. With appreciation I express my very cordial thanks.


Book details

U.S.A. Edition in B/W

Europe Edition in Color

Access to previous Material

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Recent papers since 2007

20th PACON Conf. 2007
FROM 1918 to 1940 BE EXPLAINED?"

CD-ROM. Pages: 325-337.

Conf. Paper with Figures
In English
In French
In Russian
In Polish
In German

General Material

Annex B I - Colored Sea Ice 1910-1919
Annex F - Air Temp.(Jan - Feb) 1912-1930; North Atlantic Region.
Annex G - Annual Mean Temperatures from app. 1880-1947 in the Northern Atlantic Region.